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12-May-2019 07:07

Despite the plethora of studies on masculinity about heterosexual and gay White men, and even men of color, there is relatively less empirical research on gender presentation among gay racial minorities. First, in both historical and contemporary times, gay people of color were excluded from mainstream gay social networks and movements, which have provided the basis for most empirical studies on sexual minorities ().Compared with middle-class White gays, gay minorities tend to be more dependent on social, emotional, cultural and economic support from their ethnic/racial communities, which outweighs the benefits of joining mainstream gay social circles, which some find to be racist and classist ().Across most social arenas in which power is negotiated (for example, the household, the labor market, the political sphere), men have historically asserted their dominance over women ().On the one level, gender inequality emerges from the disproportionate allocation of material, social, political, and economic capital between men and women.There has been extensive research on masculinity among heterosexual men (), a form of a symbolic currency used to elevate their social standing and used as a criterion of evaluation to select a partner.I illustrate that these men employ specific strategies when “doing” masculinity, and I argue that these strategies are shaped both by their racialization as Latinos within the US context and by their gendered socialization within their immigrant family and community.).On another level, this unequal division is maintained and reinforced on the note, masculinity and femininity are not practices that are, respectively, innate to men and women, despite the fact that most people conflate gender with biologically based sex differences.

Given the heterogeneity of men – across race, class, religion, geography and sexual orientation – it is important to note that masculinity does not carry the same meaning and value across all social contexts. Although men of more disadvantaged backgrounds (for example, minority, working-class, gay) reap certain privileges because of this system, they lack hegemonic masculinity because the masculinity that they deploy cannot often be exchanged for the most dominant forms of power and capital.From childhood to adulthood, males are socialized to act in characteristically masculine ways.Parents, authority figures, and peers applaud males when they act tough, aggressive and unemotional – behaviors associated with “real” men ().Cantú dismisses the idea that Latino gay men are marginalized by an inherently homophobic Latino culture.Rather, he and others argue that Latino gay men's access to economic resources plays a larger role than culture in influencing their experiences ().

Given the heterogeneity of men – across race, class, religion, geography and sexual orientation – it is important to note that masculinity does not carry the same meaning and value across all social contexts. Although men of more disadvantaged backgrounds (for example, minority, working-class, gay) reap certain privileges because of this system, they lack hegemonic masculinity because the masculinity that they deploy cannot often be exchanged for the most dominant forms of power and capital.

From childhood to adulthood, males are socialized to act in characteristically masculine ways.

Parents, authority figures, and peers applaud males when they act tough, aggressive and unemotional – behaviors associated with “real” men ().

Cantú dismisses the idea that Latino gay men are marginalized by an inherently homophobic Latino culture.

Rather, he and others argue that Latino gay men's access to economic resources plays a larger role than culture in influencing their experiences ().

Interestingly, White peers adhered to minority boundaries of masculinity, as they never chastised Blacks and Filipinos for engaging in behavior considered “feminine” by Whites’ standards ( notes that individuals who are excluded from dominant fields create new fields that reproduce and appropriate ideologies of the original system of relations, which has been shown to be the case within gay male social arenas ().