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The upper platform supports, and forms a prom- enade thirty feet wide round the Casa del Goberna- dor, which is a building three hundred and twenty-two feet long, thirty-nine feet wide, and twenty-six feet high,^* built of stone and mortar. There are two doorways in the rear, one on each end, and thirteen on the front; with nine interior doorways exactly opposite the same number on the exterior.A central wall divides the interior longitudinally into two nearly equal corridors, which, divided again by transverse partition walls, form two parallel rows of rooms ex- tending the whole length of the building. The rear, or western wall, except for a short distance at each end, is nine feet thick and perfectly solid, as was proved by an excavation; the transverse walls corresponding with the two recesses are of about the same thickness; and all the other walls are between two and three feet thick. of the building at the central doorway in very nearly its true proportions, although the proper size and cubical form of the blocks are not observed.^® At about mid-height of each room the side walls begin to approach each other, one layer of stones overlap- ping the one below it, until they are only one foot apart, when a number of blocks, longer than usual, are laid across the top, serving by means of the mortar which holds them in place and the weight of the superimposed masonry, as key-stones to this arch of the true American type. If this be a fact, it must have been ascertained from the sepulchral vault in the temple court, concerning the construction of which both he and Stephens are silent. Mais la conception de ces monuments, I'origi- nalite de leur ornementation suffit k plus d'un esprit pour eloigner toute idee d'origine commune.' Dally, Races Indig., p. 31 * We have this type of skull delineated by artists who had the skill to Eortray the features of their race. if not identical with, some of those found at Palenque, in Yucatan, in the Dresden Codex, and in the Manu- script Troano. 'No he hallado libros de sus antigiiedades, nicreoque en todo este distrito hay mds que uno, que yotengo,' Palacio, in Pachcco, Col. Then comes a highland tract which contains the chief towns and most of the white population of the modern republic; succeeded by the yet wilder and more mountainous regions of Totonica- pan and Vera Paz, chiefly inhabited by comparatively savage and unsubdued aboriginal tribes; from which we descend, still going northward towards Yucatan, into the little- explored lake region of Peten. ploration has been made even in comparison with those of Copan and other Central American ruins; but monuments and fragments thus far brought to Hght are found scattered over a space of some three thou- sand square feet, on the banks of a small creek which empties into the Motagua. There would seem to be much reason for the belief that here grand temples of wood once covered these mighty mounds, which, decaying, have left no trace of their former grandeur. Galindo states that the method of forming a roof here was by means of large inclined stones. *La sculpture monumentale des ruines de Copan peut rivaliser avec quelques produits similaires de I'Orient et de r Occident europeens. The Pacific coast of Guatemala for an average width of seventy- miles is low and unhealthy, with few inhabitants in modern, as, judging from the absence of material relics, in ancient times. The same description is also given in Valois, Mexique, pp. Scherzer's pamphlet on the subject bears the title Ein Besuch bei den Ruinen von Quirigud im Staate Guatemala in Central-Amerika, (Wien, 110 ANTIQUITIES OF GUATEMALA.Some special motive must have influenced the builders to use wood in preference to the more durable stone, and this motive may be supposed to have been the rarity and value of the zapote, which is said not to grow in this part of the state.The only traces preserved of the means by which these doorways were originally closed are the remains, on the inside of some of them near the top, of rings, or 16 Friederichsthal, in Nouvelles Annales des Voy., 1841, torn, xcii,, p. 34, pronounces them from 25 to 28 centimetres in length, width, and thickness. Y., where it shared the fate of Stephens* other relics. 159 hooks, which may have served as hinges, or more probably for the support of a bar from which to sus- pend curtains.109 ancient city comes through Mr Catherwood and Dr Scherzer. Stephen's map locates Quirigua, however, on the south bank of the river. milles vares environ de cette riviere.' Nouvelles Annates des Voy., 1840, tom. Der We^ von Yzabal fiihrt in einer Entfemun^ von 3 Stunden an dem Orte vorbei.' Reichardt, Cent. Ses mines mysterieuses sont aujourd'hui ensevelies k environ trois lieues du triste village qui porte son nom.' Sue, Henri le Chancelier, pp. His plan is reproduced on a reduced scale in Willson's Amer. It may be remarked here that the names by which the differ- ent structures are known have been given them, gen- erally by the natives, but sometimes by visitors, in accordance with what they have fancied to have been their original use. Besides the plans, general views of the ruins from nearly the same point (^ on the plan looking southward) are given by Stephens, Yucatan, vol. 372-3, makes the same fifteen and ten feet respectively.The former, traveling with Mr Stephens, visited the locahty in 1840 in company with the Se- nores Payes, proprietors of the estate on which the ruins stand, and by his description Quirigua first was made known to the world. * Quirigua, village gua- temalien, situe sur la route et h huit lieues environ du port de I'lsabal; les mines qui en portent le nom existent h deux lieues de la sur la rive gauche du fleuve Motagua.' Brasseur de Bourbourg, Palenque, introd., p. There is only a very slight prob- ability that in a few cases they may have hit upon a correct designation, although many of the names, like that of this building, are certainly sufficiently appro- priate." The terraced mound that supports the Gov- Nat. Waldeck's plan makes the summit platform about 240 feet long. forms were also paved originally with square blocks, as M.

It is to be remarked that besides pyramids and terraced walls, no traces what- ever of buildings, public or private, remain to guide us in determining the material or style of architecture affected by the former people of this region. I have no idea'vvliat this one book spoken of may have been. Dividing this terri- tory into two nearly equal portions by a line drawn near the eighteenth parallel of latitude, the northern part, between the bay of Chetumal and Laguna de Terminos, is the peninsula of Yucatan; while that (106) GUATEMALA. No article of any metal whatever has been found; yet as only one burial deposit has been opened, it is by no means certain that gold or copper ornaments were not employed. This form, then, per- tained to the most exalted personages.' Foster's Pre-Hist. It is hard to resist the behef that these tablets hold locked up in their mystic characters the history of the ruined city and its people, or the hope that the key to their significance may yet be brought to light; still, in the absence of a contempo- rary written language, the hope must be allowed to rest on a very unsubstantial basis. Like those of Pa- enque, and some characters of the Dresden MS. They fought long and desperately in defence of their homes and liberty, and when forced to yield before Spanish discipline and arms, the few survivors of the struggle either retired to the inaccessible fast- nesses of the northern highlands, or remained in sullen forced submission to their conquerors in the homes of their past greatness — the aboriginal spirit still un- broken, and the native superstitious faith yielding only nominally to Catholic power and persuasion. No aboriginal name is known for the locality, Quirigua being merely that of a small village at the foot of Mount Mico, not far distant. Ill the sides to the super-.imposed structure are only eight pr nine inches high and six or seven inches in width, remaining intact only at a few points. Palacio's miscellaneous relics are, a large stone in the form of an eagle with a tablet of hieroglyphics a vara long on its breast; a stone cross three palms high, with a broken arm; and a supposed baptismal font in the plaza. The top of the gallery leading through the river- wall would indicate a method of construction by means of over-lapping blocks, which we shall find employed ex- clusively in Yucatan and Chiapas. These artists would not select the most oly of places as the groundwork of their caricatures. When the disciples of Brasseur de Bourbourg shall succeed in realizing his expectations respecting the latter document, by means of the Landa alphabet, we may expect the mystery to be partially lifted from Copan. At the time of its conquest by the Spaniards, Guatemala was the seat of several powerful aboriginal kingdoms, chief among which were those of the Quiches and Gakchi- quels. An account made up from Catherwood's notes was, however, inserted in the Guatemalan newspaper El Tiempo hy the proprietors of the Quirigua estate, and translated into French in Ze Moniteur Parisien, from which it was reprinted iw Nouvelles Annales des Voy., 1840, tom. The site is only very slightly elevated above the level of the river, and is consequently often flooded in times of high water; indeed, during a more than ordinary freshet in 1852, after Mr Catherwood's visit, several idols were under- mined and overthrown.^^ The inner surface of the rooms is that of the plain smooth stone blocks, except in one or two of them where a very thin coating of fine white plas- ter is noticed. 'The length of the upper platform (in English feet !!There is no trace of painting, sculp- ture, or other attempt at decoration. ) is seen to correspond nearly witli the number of d lys in the year, and the mysterious emblem of eternity, the serpent, is found extending its portentous length around the building.' Fros Vs Great Citia, p. 'Du haut de ses trois etages de pyramides, il se dresse comme un roi, dans un isolement plein de majestueuse grandeur.' ' L'omementation se compose d'une guirlande en forme ae trapfezes reguliers, de ces ^normes tetes deja decrites, courant du haut en has de la fa9ade, et servant de ligne enveloppante a des grecques d'un relief tr^s-saillant, relives entre elles par une ligne de petites piei Tcs en carr^ diversement sculptees; le tout sur un fond plat de tre Ulis de pierre.

It is to be remarked that besides pyramids and terraced walls, no traces what- ever of buildings, public or private, remain to guide us in determining the material or style of architecture affected by the former people of this region. I have no idea'vvliat this one book spoken of may have been. Dividing this terri- tory into two nearly equal portions by a line drawn near the eighteenth parallel of latitude, the northern part, between the bay of Chetumal and Laguna de Terminos, is the peninsula of Yucatan; while that (106) GUATEMALA. No article of any metal whatever has been found; yet as only one burial deposit has been opened, it is by no means certain that gold or copper ornaments were not employed. This form, then, per- tained to the most exalted personages.' Foster's Pre-Hist. It is hard to resist the behef that these tablets hold locked up in their mystic characters the history of the ruined city and its people, or the hope that the key to their significance may yet be brought to light; still, in the absence of a contempo- rary written language, the hope must be allowed to rest on a very unsubstantial basis. Like those of Pa- enque, and some characters of the Dresden MS. They fought long and desperately in defence of their homes and liberty, and when forced to yield before Spanish discipline and arms, the few survivors of the struggle either retired to the inaccessible fast- nesses of the northern highlands, or remained in sullen forced submission to their conquerors in the homes of their past greatness — the aboriginal spirit still un- broken, and the native superstitious faith yielding only nominally to Catholic power and persuasion. No aboriginal name is known for the locality, Quirigua being merely that of a small village at the foot of Mount Mico, not far distant. Ill the sides to the super-.imposed structure are only eight pr nine inches high and six or seven inches in width, remaining intact only at a few points. Palacio's miscellaneous relics are, a large stone in the form of an eagle with a tablet of hieroglyphics a vara long on its breast; a stone cross three palms high, with a broken arm; and a supposed baptismal font in the plaza. The top of the gallery leading through the river- wall would indicate a method of construction by means of over-lapping blocks, which we shall find employed ex- clusively in Yucatan and Chiapas. These artists would not select the most oly of places as the groundwork of their caricatures. When the disciples of Brasseur de Bourbourg shall succeed in realizing his expectations respecting the latter document, by means of the Landa alphabet, we may expect the mystery to be partially lifted from Copan. At the time of its conquest by the Spaniards, Guatemala was the seat of several powerful aboriginal kingdoms, chief among which were those of the Quiches and Gakchi- quels. An account made up from Catherwood's notes was, however, inserted in the Guatemalan newspaper El Tiempo hy the proprietors of the Quirigua estate, and translated into French in Ze Moniteur Parisien, from which it was reprinted iw Nouvelles Annales des Voy., 1840, tom. The site is only very slightly elevated above the level of the river, and is consequently often flooded in times of high water; indeed, during a more than ordinary freshet in 1852, after Mr Catherwood's visit, several idols were under- mined and overthrown.^^ The inner surface of the rooms is that of the plain smooth stone blocks, except in one or two of them where a very thin coating of fine white plas- ter is noticed. 'The length of the upper platform (in English feet !!There is no trace of painting, sculp- ture, or other attempt at decoration. ) is seen to correspond nearly witli the number of d lys in the year, and the mysterious emblem of eternity, the serpent, is found extending its portentous length around the building.' Fros Vs Great Citia, p. 'Du haut de ses trois etages de pyramides, il se dresse comme un roi, dans un isolement plein de majestueuse grandeur.' ' L'omementation se compose d'une guirlande en forme ae trapfezes reguliers, de ces ^normes tetes deja decrites, courant du haut en has de la fa9ade, et servant de ligne enveloppante a des grecques d'un relief tr^s-saillant, relives entre elles par une ligne de petites piei Tcs en carr^ diversement sculptees; le tout sur un fond plat de tre Ulis de pierre. Most of the general reflections and speculations on Copan indulged in by observers and students refer to other ruined cities in connection with this, and will be noted in a future chapter. Among the inhabitants of the region in later times, there is no difference of opinion whatever with respect to the origin of the ruins or their builders; they are unanimous in their adherence to the ^quien sabe' theory. Above the isthmus of Honduras the continent widens abruptly, forming between the Rio Motagua and Laguna de Terminos on the Atlantic, the Rio Paza and bar of Ayutla on the Pacific, a territory which stretches some five hundred and fifty miles from north to south, with a nearly uniform width of two hundred miles from east to west.